The prison system is in crisis.
It has failed to protect women and girls from sexual assault.
But it has also failed to prosecute those responsible.
For those who do, it is hard to escape the fact that there are few, if any, avenues to redress the harm that is being done to the victims of prison rape.
And while it is often hard to identify the perpetrators of these crimes, the vast majority of female prisoners are in solitary confinement, and some of them have been for long periods.
While the number of female prison staff has been rising, women in solitary are still much more likely to experience sexual assault, especially if they are under threat.
In addition to being at risk of assault and harassment, female inmates are also more likely than male prisoners to be victims of domestic violence and abuse.
These women are especially vulnerable because they are not seen as worthy of protection by the male-dominated system.
Inmates face more problems than male prison staff The most shocking thing about the state of female prisons is that they are often more vulnerable than male staff members.
According to a 2016 report by the International Labor Rights Forum, the female prisoners in female-run prisons are three times more likely, and nearly four times more often, to experience violence than the male prisoners.
This is not just a problem in female prisons.
According the International Labour Organisation, female prisoners and their families are twice as likely to be imprisoned, and three times as likely in women’s prisons, than male offenders.
And in many countries, women are imprisoned at the highest levels.
For example, in Australia, women prisoners are incarcerated at the same rate as men and are more likely also to be sexually assaulted and abused.
In New Zealand, women prison staff are five times more frequently sexually assaulted than their male counterparts.
In the US, women inmates are incarcerated on average at the higher levels of violence and sexual assault compared to men, and in Canada women are more than four times as often as men.
In many countries around the world, female prison inmates are subject to harsher and more restrictive conditions.
For instance, in the UK, female female prisoners have fewer privileges, including access to toilet facilities, a better standard of living and access to education.
In Germany, women have the same rights as men in prison, but they are subjected to a higher level of scrutiny.
In Italy, female prisons are subject the highest level of segregation, as are male prisons, but women are not allowed to leave the prison and are held under very high security conditions.
In Australia, in particular, female correctional officers are subject only to a minimum security security level of 16 hours a day, while male correctional officers have a maximum security level that is three times that of female officers.
Women prisoners are also subject to more violence than men In a number of countries, female offenders are incarcerated in the same prison as men, which is more likely for reasons of security, punishment or the perceived risk of sexual assault to female prisoners.
For many countries where women have been incarcerated at higher levels, such as New Zealand and the US where female inmates and their family members are disproportionately incarcerated, there is a greater likelihood that they will experience more violence or sexual assault in solitary than their female counterparts.
As a result, they are more at risk.
As with any situation in prison that is complex, it can be hard to assess how the conditions and treatment of female offenders can impact on the overall safety of the male inmates.
A 2016 report from the Australian National University concluded that in male prisons and in male-only institutions where female prisoners live, there was a greater chance of sexual violence and violence against women, particularly if the female prisoner was a victim of violence.
In these facilities, male prisoners are more prone to violence, including rape, and the rate of sexual assaults has increased.
This risk is compounded by the lack of access to care for female inmates, including in female jails.
In some facilities, female guards are only allowed access to a small number of staff, including mental health workers and family members.
In others, male staff are allowed to access all staff.
These conditions mean that female inmates face greater risk of violence, even if they have not been the victim of any serious assault.
There is a need for improved and more transparent systems for investigating sexual assault and other violence against female inmates.
As an Australian researcher recently said: “There is no place in Australian society for a culture that is so violent and so misogynistic.
We have a serious issue with female prison guards, and we are going to have to address that problem.”
There is hope for change There are some positive signs that are emerging.
For one, the Australian government is now introducing a new sexual assault prevention program, called ‘Blue Sky’.
The Blue Sky plan will work with all Australian correctional institutions, including female prisons, to ensure that staff who sexually assault prisoners are properly punished.
The Blue Key system will also include a ‘blue line’ system that will allow staff to be charged with sexual assault if they commit